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朗阁名师解析新托福推论问题
发布:济南托福培训学校  点击数:  发布时间:2013-02-07 10:12
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推论类问题(Inference Questions)是新托福每次必考的题型,每次题量不是很多,通常每篇文章0-2个左右.下面朗阁专家就带考生们具体了解一下这种题型及其解题方法
  推论类问题(Inference Questions)是新托福每次必考的题型,每次题量不是很多,通常每篇文章0-2个左右。下面朗阁专家就带考生们具体了解一下这种题型及其解题方法。
 
  问题形式
  这类问题主要考察考生对文章中一个观点或立场的理解程度,而这种观点或立场是作者在文章中强烈暗示但并没有明确阐明的。比如说,如果文章陈述了一个事件的结果,那么推论类问题就很可能问考生其原因是什么;如果文章出现对比,那么此类问题就可能问考生其对比的基础是什么。
  注意:解答此类问题时,考生不仅需要理解作者所写出句子的字面意思,还必须搞清楚这些句子之间的逻辑性暗示。正确答案一定是从文章已给出的内容中推论出来的。
 
  这种题目的提问方式通常为:
 
  推论类问题的题干中通常会出现infer、suggest或者imply这类词汇。
  ★ Which of the following can be inferred about X?
  ★ The author of the passage implies that X…
  ★ Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about X?
 
  解题步骤
  1. 读题干,确定问题类型
  2. 选择问题中的关键词或关键短语作为定位信息
  3. 浏览指定段落,利用定位信息确定原文中的对应内容
  4. 仔细阅读并且理解原文中的对应内容,直接确定答案或者利用排除法确定答案。
 
  注意:错误选项通常为
  ★ 不被文中所给出或暗示的信息所支持
  ★ 重复文章中信息但没有回答问题
  ★ 过于笼统或模糊
  ★ 不真实、不准确
  ★ 与文章不相关或者没有被提及
 
  解题范例
  The extreme seriousness of desertification results from the vast areas of land and the tremendous numbers of people affected, as well as from the great difficulty of reversing or even slowing the process. Once the soil has been removed by erosion, only the passage of centuries or millennia will enable new soil to form. In areas where considerable soil still remains, through, a rigorously enforced program of land protection and cover-crop planting may make it possible to reverse the present deterioration of the surface.
 
  It can be inferred from the passage that the author most likely believes which of the following about the future of desertification?
 
  ○ Governments will act quickly to control further desertification.
  ○ The factors influencing desertification occur in cycles and will change in the future.
  ● Desertification will continue to increase.
  ○ Desertification will soon occur in all areas of the world.
 
 
  解析:根据题目中的“infer”一词,我们可以断定此题为推论类问题。接下来读题干,可以确定定位信息应该为the future of desertification。在文章中定位,考生们可以找到对应信息为“In areas where considerable soil still remains, through, a rigorously enforced program of land protection and cover-crop planting may make it possible to reverse the present deterioration of the surface.”仔细阅读该信息,考生们会发现,根据原文对应的信息无法明确确定作者的态度,因此我们需要用排除法来解题。根据原文对应信息,第一个选项中的内容没有被原文提及,因此为错误选项;第二个选项中的内容也未被原文提及,为错误选项;第四个选项内容在原文中也没有被提及,为错误选项;因此利用排除法,我们可以断定第三个选项为正确选项。
 
  Another major discovery was made in Egypt in 1989. Several skeletons of another early whale, Basilosaurus, were found in sediments left by the Tethy Sea and now exposed in the Sahara desert. This whale lived around 40 million years ago, 12 million years after Pakicetus. Many incomplete skeletons were found but they included, for the first time in an archaeocyte, a complete hint leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foof-long Basilosaurus on land. Basilosaurus was undoubtedly a fully marine whale with possibly nonfunctional, or vestigial, hind legs.
 
  It can be inferred that Basilosaurus bred and gave birth in which of the following location?
  ○ On land
  ○ Both on land and at sea
  ○ In shallow water
  ● In a marine environment
 
  解析:根据题目中的“infer”一词,我们可以断定此题为推论类问题。接下来读题干,可以确定定位信息应该为Basilosaurus。利用该词在文中定位,可以确定文章中对应信息为“Several skeletons of another early whale, Basilosaurus, were found in sediments left by the Tethy Sea and now exposed in the Sahara desert. This whale lived around 40 million years ago, 12 million years after Pakicetus. Many incomplete skeletons were found but they included, for the first time in an archaeocyte, a complete hint leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foof-long Basilosaurus on land. Basilosaurus was undoubtedly a fully marine whale with possibly nonfunctional, or vestigial, hind legs.”仔细阅读此信息,尤其是“Basilosaurus was undoubtedly a fully marine whale with possibly nonfunctional, or vestigial, hind legs”我们可以推论出Basilosaurus完全是一种海洋鲸鱼,它无法在陆地生活,因此答案可以确定为第四个选项In a marine environment。
 
  Before 1915 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans. As master craftworkers, they imparted the knowledge or their trades to apprentices and journeymen. In addition, women often worked in their homes partime, making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. After 1985 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers. Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and the availability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.
 
  Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about articles manufactured before 1815?
  ○ They were primarily produced by women.
  ○ They were generally produced in shops rather than in homes.
  ● They were produced with more concern for quality than for speed of production.
  ○ They were produced mostly in large cities with extensive transportation networks.
 
  解析:根据题目中的“infer”一词,我们可以断定此题为推论类问题。接下来读题干,可以确定定位信息为articles manufactured before 1815。利用该信息在文章中定位,我们能够定位到以上段落中的信息。在该段落中,作者把1815年前的加工形式和1815年后的做了对比,但是根据该段落中提供的1815年前的信息,我们无法直接准确确定答案,因此也需要用到排除法。根据段落中提供的1815年前的信息,我们可以确定第一个选项和第二个选项的内容在文章中未提及;而根据段落中提供的1815年后的信息我们则可以确定第四个选项的内容不真实,不准确,因此为错误选项;而如果我们把段落中的“Before 1915 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans.”和“After 1985 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers”做对比,就可以推论出第三个选项为正确选项。
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